Conditions that show harmful effects of materials:
Some materials are beneficial when used in proper way. Some have to be used in the correct amount to avoid danger. For example, acids when used wrongly can be dangerous. Pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers and other sprays are useful but they are harmful if used in the wrong way. Many chemicals are harmful to the environment.
Managing food at home:
Every family needs good food. It is directly connected to healthful life. We use additive to make food tasty. We use preservative to make the food and foodstuffs stay edible and fresh for a longer time. Sanitary practices in using and storing them should be observed. We do not want to hear of children or some people in a certain place suffering from diarrhea or dysentery because they ate certain foods peddled at some street comers. Sometimes, we bring foods to our homes for our younger brothers and sisters. Extras or excess additive after eating. Are better thrown away.
Managing Medicines and other drugs:
Medicine – have specific purposes. They are intended to cure particular illnesses or diseases. They should be properly kept beyond the reach of children.
Aspirin and paracetamol – are usually kept at home by some families. They are mild-pain killers or analgesic used to cure headaches and fever. Aspirin also helps reduce swelling and inflammation.
Alcohol – If taken in large amounts, it cools affect the drinker’s judgment, coordination and behavior.
Conditions that show beneficial Effects of Materials
There are conditions when the effects of materials are beneficial. Look around your house. The paint protects metals from rusting. It protects wood from early decay. Paint is beneficial because it makes the wood and iron last longer. In the kitchen are foods that stay fresh because of substances added to preserve them from rotting and spoiling. Some substances enrich their flavor. Sprays were invented to kill warms and other insects that might destroy the fruits and vegetables. Fertilizers were prepared to help plants grow very well. In your bathroom are soaps and medicines that are continuously being improved to satisfy the consumers. In the laundry room are detergent, powdered soap and bleaching chemicals for cleaning and washing clothes. Materials made of plastic, iron, silver or wood can be seen in the house, such as plastic chairs, plastic table covers, curtain rods made of steel, silver ware, wooden cabinets and many more.
They improved the health of people.
They kill or destroy harmful organism.
They make life more comfortable.
They make word faster and easier.
They help protect and conserve the environment.
Condition when materials have harmful effects:
Technology has given us more and better materials for we in our home. However, it has also caused harm to the environment. Think of the processes materials undergo before they become ready for our use.
Proper Disposal of Waste Materials:
Waste materials from the home when improperly disposed of add to the pollution of our environment.
Here are ways to properly dispose of waste materials
Sort and label waste materials accordingly. Containers such as plastic bags, cartons, tin cans and bottles can be cleansed and reused or recycled.
Place expired materials such as medicine and corrosive in proper containers. Label the container before putting it in a trashcan or a garbage – collection day. Never drain expired liquid contents into the soil or in canals.
Safety Procedures in using materials:
1.Read labels and instructions on containers before using any material or chemical products.
2.Never attempt to taste unknown materials.
3.Avoid using expired materials. These include medicines, packages or canned goods.
4.Wear protective goggles and mask and use rubber gloves when using cleansing materials, which contain acids.
5.If your skin is sensitive to detergents, you may use rubber gloves when washing clothes.
6.Never play with matches and flammable materials. Keep them out of the reach of the younger members of the family.
Proper Storage of Materials:
1.Classify the materials according to use. Have a proper storage place for each kind of material. Medicines should be placed together in a medicine cabinet.
2.Materials for food preparation such as salt, sugar, vinegar and other should be stored away from cleaning materials. Materials that contain harmful; chemicals should be kept in a locked cabinet.
3.Label containers to indicate what is inside.
4.Kerosene, fuel oil, paints; lacquer thinner and other petroleum product are combustible. Store them away from the heat producer.
5.Do not keep bottles, medicines and chemicals that do not have labels.
6.Keep matches and all poisonous and inflammable materials out of the reach of the younger member of the family.
Phases of Matter:
1.Solid- has form, hardness, rigidity or the ability to oppose or change in shape.
2.Liquid – do not have shape of their own. They follow the shape of the container.
3.Gas – have neither a definite volume nor a definite shape exert pressure equally in all directions.
4.Plasma – they cannot be seen. They are found in the interior of the stars, in the outer space, and some laboratory experiments.
Properties of Matter:
1.Impenetrability- no things can occupy the same place at the same time.
2.Elasticity – the capability of a strained body or object to recover its size and shape after deformation.
3.Solubility –0 a property of a substance to dissolve in another kind of substance.
4.Malleability – the ability to form different shapes by beating with a pressure of rollers.
5.Density – refers to the quantity of matter per unit volume or unit area.
6.Porosity – the ability to absorb liquids. Porous materials are soft because they contain tiny holes, where absorbed water stays.
7.Ductility – the capability of being permanently drawn out or hammered them.
8.Brittleness- they easily break into pieces.
Physical change- can return to its original form
change in shape & size.
Chemical change – cannot return to its original form
there is a new material form
properties are lost.
Energy – is the ability to do work or to make something move.
a material cannot be moved without applying some force to it.
That force may be push or a pull.
Force – the force used to make something move is provided by energy.
Work – without energy, there can be no force, and work.